A study investigating the effect of OTA on gut microbiota using bioreactors has been carried out by Ouethrani et al. Based on the study, the gut microbiota degradation of OTA and microbiota diversity alteration were observed only at the descending colon after 1-week exposure to OTA.
PCR-TTGE targeting Lactobacilli populations showed that Lactobacillus reuteri present during the start-up period, was permanently disappeared at the end of the OTA treatment period accompanied by some minor changes in the bifidobacteria population. The reduction of beneficial microbes, lactobacillus and bifidobacteria indicated that the OTA shifted the microbiota balance and possibly led to impaired immunity. In vivo study in rat demonstrated that OTA treatment decreased the diversity of the gut microbiota Guo et al. The authors also reported that the relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae was increased whereas the Bacteroidaceae was decreased.
Moreover, at the genus level, the OTA decreased the population of Bacteroides, Dorea, Escherichia, Oribacterium, Ruminococcus, and Syntrophococcus, while increased the number of Lactobacillus. Apart from that, it was also reported that the total facultative anaerobes were increased by the OTA treatment. In fact, the increase in facultative anaerobes was often observed in individuals with health complication Shimizu et al.
This may further suggest that the OTA may cause negative effects on the host health via gut microbiota modulation. In contrast to the intense research on AFB1 untoward effects, little information is available in regard to the outcomes of AFB1 on the gut microbiota. The findings from Wang et al. AFB1 decreased phylogenetical diversity but increased evenness of community composition.
Besides, it has also been reported that 2. Interestingly, a separate study showed greater numbers of bacterial mutants were recovered from mice exposed to AFB1 Rowland, The data implies that the genotoxic effects of AFB1 not only affecting the host, but the gut microbiota as well. On the other hand, the effect of a combination of mycotoxins on the modulation of gut microbiota has also been investigated. In particular, the amounts of C. Nevertheless, the biodiversity of microorganisms in the gut was increased.
Apart from that, an increase in the metabolism of amino acid by the gut microbiota was also observed. It was suggested that the increased metabolism of amino acid may be detrimental due to the formation of biogenic amines and procarcinogenic compounds Piotrowska et al. Mycotoxins are capable of altering the microbial balance of the intestine.
Furthermore, the possible pathway proposed is via oxidative stress induced by mycotoxins Vinderola and Ritieni, Nonetheless, the mechanisms by which mycotoxins affect the gut bacterial composition however remain unclear. Chronic mycotoxicosis, such as HCC results from a high dosage of mycotoxins' contamination. Such pathogenesis generally involves the formation of DNA adducts, regulation of DNA methylation, and alteration of gene expression Dai et al. Interestingly, gut microbiota perturbation is found to be one of the factors influencing mycotoxin-induced HCC and its association is described in Figure 1.
The development of HCC in mice induced by a combination of diethylnitrosamine DEN and hepatotoxin carbon tetrachloride CCl4 , a model that features several characteristics of chronically injured livers in which human HCC mostly arises, is prevented via gut sterilization. The same study also showed that mice that were grown in specific GF conditions demonstrated fewer and smaller tumors as compared with those grown under specific pathogen free SPF conditions Dapito et al.
In a toxic model of hepatocarcinogenesis, Yu L. Treatment of rats with antibiotic targeting gram-negative organisms polymyxin B and neomycin markedly reduced the size and number of HCC nodules after injection of DEN, which induces HCC.
Figure 1. The involvement of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of HCC. Ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated foods induces HCC, which eventually leads to the intestinal dysbiosis. The perturbation of microbial balance in the intestine causes a decrease of beneficial gut bacteria.
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Without the protection from beneficial bacteria, the growth of pathogens will expand rapidly and produce high level of LPS. Restoration of gut microbiota balance via intake of probiotics can alleviate the tumorigenic effects in HCC. Some specific bacterial species are also found to be correlated with HCC development. Findings from both animal and human studies demonstrated that liver cirrhosis and HCC stimulate an intestinal dysbiosis as well as a significant increase population of the E. Besides, hepatocarcinogenesis is found to be related to the increased lipopolysaccharides LPS levels which are commonly produced by pathogens in several studies Zhang et al.
Probiotics are known for their roles in gut health and microbiota restoration. In addition, many strains of probiotics possess the ability to reduce the level of mycotoxins, particularly via binding. A human study by El-Nezami et al.
Similar finding was found by Mohd Redzwan et al. Probiotic supplement reduces the biologically available effective toxic dose of mycotoxin coupled with its gut microbiota normalization ability, offer an effective dietary approach to decrease the risk of liver cancer. As shown in these studies, the restoration of gut microbiota equilibrium offers protection and treatment effects in HCC whereas the occurrence of HCC is linked to the higher abundance of pathogens as illustrated in Figure 1. The linkage of microbiota and HCC is undeniably important to understand the mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of HCC.
This concise review has attempted to draw together the keyworks to highlight the crucial interaction between mycotoxins, the gut, and the gut microbiota in human and animal health. The mycotoxins and gut microbiota studies have revealed meaningful interactions. The uptake of mycotoxin and subsequent tissue distribution are governed by GI tract absorption, and the presence of microbiota at the GI tract can affect the intestinal barrier causing different maximal or limited bioavailability of these fungal compounds. The gut microbiota can vary within the same species, thus different reactions toward mycotoxin can be observed as discussed in this review article.
In addition, mycotoxins disrupt the gut microbiota balance, and thereby dysregulate intestinal functions and impair local immune response, which may eventually result in systemic toxicity that leads to chronic mycotoxicosis, HCC. The severity of HCC condition can be positively governed by restoration of gut microbiota balance and gut health via probiotics administration. Probiotic which generally helps restore the natural harmony of gut microbiota coupled with its mycotoxins reducing ability could increase its health-promoting value.
W-P-PL wrote the draft. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Abassi, H. The mycotoxin zearalenone enhances cell proliferation, colony formation and promotes cell migration in the human colon carcinoma cell line HCT Adhikari, M.
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